Drug Form
Phenytoin Suspension
Carbamazepine Suspension; can empty capsule contents from
Carbatrol brand and inject with water
Valproic acid Syrup; can administer valproate (Depakote)
sprinkles and inject with water
Lamotrigine* Pulverize chewable 25 mg tabs and inject with water
Topiramate Administer sprinkles (25 mg) and inject with water
Phenobarbital Liquid
Gabapentin** Liquid; or empty capsules into solution and inject
Levetiracetam Liquid
Oxcarbazepine Suspension (or may substitute 200 mg of
carbamazepine for each 300 mg of
oxcarbazepine, if no contraindication)
Zonisamide Unknown (beware of sulfa allergies)

* From BE Gidal, GD Anderson, A Lanning, et al. Lack of effect of VPA concentration on lamotrigine pharmacokinetics in developmentally disabled patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2000;42:23-31.
**BE Gidal, personal communication, July 2001.

Adapted from: Kolb SJ and Litt B. Management of epilepsy and comorbid disorders in the emergency room and intensive care unit. In: Ettinger AB and Devinsky O, eds. Managing epilepsy and co-existing disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002;515-535.
With permission from Elsevier (www.elsevier.com).

Authored By: 
SJ Kolb and B Litt
Reviewed By: 
Steven C. Schachter MD
Friday, April 30, 2004