Non-REM parasomnia REM behavior disorder Nocturnal seizures Psychogenic events
Time of occurrence First 1/3 of night During REM Any time Any time
Memory of event Usually none Dream recall Usually none None
Stereotypical movements None None Yes None
Poly-somnogram findings Arousals from delta sleep Excessive EMG tone during REM Potentially epileptiform activity Occur from awake state

REM = rapid eye movement; EMG = electromyography

Adapted from: Malow, BA, and Vaughn BV. Sleep disorders and epilepsy. In: Ettinger AB and Devinsky O, eds. Managing epilepsy and co-existing disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002;265. With permission from Elsevier (

Authored By: 
BA Malow
BV Vaughn
Reviewed By: 
Steven C. Schachter MD
Thursday, April 1, 2004