What Are the Risk Factors of Seizures?

  • Babies who are born small for their age
  • Babies who have seizures in the first month of life
  • Babies who are born with abnormal areas in the brain
  • Bleeding into the brain
  • Abnormal blood vessels in the brain
  • Serious brain injury or lack of oxygen to the brain
  • Brain tumors
  • Infections of the brain: abscess, meningitis, or encephalitis
  • Stroke resulting from blockage of arteries
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Conditions with intellectual and developmental disabilities
  • Seizures occurring within days after head injury ("early posttraumatic seizures")
  • Family history of epilepsy or fever-related seizures
  • Alzheimer's disease (late in the illness)
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fever-related (febrile) seizures that are unusually long
  • Long episodes of seizures or repeated seizures called status epilepticus
  • Use of illegal drugs such as cocaine
  • Mild head injuries, such as a concussion with just a very brief loss of consciousness, do not cause epilepsy. Yet the effects of repeated mild head injuries and epilepsy is unknown.

Although the disorders and injuries on these lists help to explain many cases of epilepsy, more people with epilepsy don't have any of these. Often we just don't know how or why epilepsy gets started.

Even though you may not know the cause of your epilepsy, you can look at whether there are factors (often called "triggers") that precipitate or provoke seizures. These triggers may make a person with epilepsy more likely to have a seizure in certain situations. The triggers could change the number or severity of seizures. Learning if you have any triggers can help you learn what to do next. Sometimes people can learn how to modify their lifestyle or environment to lessen the risk of triggers

Authored By:

Steven C. Schachter, MD

Reviewed By:

Epilepsy Foundation Communications

Resources

Epilepsy Centers

Epilepsy centers provide you with a team of specialists to help you diagnose your epilepsy and explore treatment options.

Epilepsy Medication

Find in-depth information on anti-seizure medications so you know what to ask your doctor.

Epilepsy and Seizures 24/7 Helpline

Call our Epilepsy and Seizures 24/7 Helpline and talk with an epilepsy information specialist or submit a question online.

Tools & Forms

Download our seizure tracking app, print out seizure action plans, or explore other educational materials.

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